## Introduction

## Video

Hi everybody today, we're going to be looking at the elements of art and principles of design and applying them to looking at some art by some black artists that we are going to be learning about, uh and adding to our black artist database.

So these are artists from the database you're going to be adding to this pool of names and images today.

But this is to start with some examples of the elements of the and of art and principles of design in action.

We're going to talk about the principles of design in depth today.

And how we apply the elements, which are like the ingredients in a recipe to the recipe so line shape form, texture value and color.

Those are all the elements of art.

And those are like your salt your pepper, your oil, all of the ingredients in a recipe, repetition, symmetrical balance or sometimes called, uh, formal balance variety, space and depth, contrast and emphasis.

Those are the principles of design and that's how we arrange the elements of art.

So let's, take a look at these at these ideas, these concepts in action.

Let me share my screen here.

So we're starting out here with the artists from the black artists database here we have an example of repetition.

Repetition is a pattern, a repeating image or set of elements that creates a visual rhythm that moves the eye around the page.

So all of that activity in the background, this repetition of the black and white lines and shapes within those rectangles creates this feeling of movement and rhythm.

And using the repetition, the repetition of those elements, the lines those black and white little tiny, uh pieces of the entire page.

So that background repetition creates a pattern that falls behind her and creates visual interest in the background.

It gives a feeling of movement or motion, almost like she's, moving in front of that, busy background, symmetrical balance or sometimes called formal balance.

We've talked about this one before too this.

One is what if you could imagine a an imaginary line to running down the middle of the page.

And the circle itself is symmetrical on both sides.

This is by one of my favorite artists, howard dean pindell, who makes beautiful abstract paintings.

I love the spectrum of color.

Here, variety variety is a single element with a variety of approaches to the same thing.

So the idea being that, if you look at the lines in the basquiat drawing, we have thick lines.

We have quick fast lines.

We have thin scraggly lines.

The lines have a different a variety of different kinds of qualities to them that shows a difference.

So we have a whole bunch that's, not boring.

When you look around, if you have a variety of lines in a drawing or a variety of colors, it creates a lot of visual interest and excitement looking at the work.

It makes it very dynamic space.

This is a painting by charles alston.

Uh, space is the feeling of distance or atmosphere in an artwork.

If you look at this painting, you can see that the streetcars are really small in the distance as they move higher on the page.

And then the streetcar that's closest to you and the figures that are closest to you are larger.

And that creates that feeling of depth or space, like you could walk right into the picture contrast is to show difference.

In this case of the gen taylor picket painting, you have this black background.

And then the contrast these bright bold patterns around the edges.

And then the bright color in the figure space that creates that dynamic contrast that draws your attention to the areas of interest in the artwork.

And finally, we have emphasis that's to create a focal point or area of interest, often using size color or contrast.

So here your eye goes straight to that figurative painting that that portrait and then the uh, wrapping around her eyes, it's because it's in such great contrast to both her skin tone and the bright brilliant red rectangle that's behind her head.

So you have three really bold marks that red the brown of the skin tone, and then the white of the wrap around your eyes.

And in the contrast, the background has all of these areas of pattern all of those details, bring your eye right to that area of the emphasis, which is across the model's eye in the in the painting.

This is a beautiful painting by louis malu jones.

So I'm going to stop screen share and we're going to change views we're going to take a look down and talk about how to complete your homework assignment, which is what you're going to be working on this afternoon, it's, not due right away.

You have lots of time to work on this.

I want you to take your time and do one row at a time really being mindful and using your best craft when you're making this work.

So it's, not so much about going through it quickly.

This is going to be a very easy assignment, it's, not going to take you a long time.

However, I want you to spend time to do your best work so that your drawings are beautiful.

If you look at the art teachers page that I posted in the module, it gives you some really excellent examples of some teenagers artwork to give you an idea of what's possible, even within a small area, how much variety and a visual interest you can create on the page.

So let's, take a look at the paper that we're working on.

Okay.

So let me straighten my matrix up here.

Okay, so we're gonna work our way down, okay, uh, going one column at a time.

In this case, we're gonna start with repetition and movement that was our pattern right that was that sort of where we started with pattern.

And my first element of art is line.

So I'm going to be making a pattern out of lines I'm going to use a pencil first.

And I want to create a feeling of movement so I'm going to repeat those lines.

It doesn't have to be a regular pattern.

It doesn't have to be even it can be at an angle.

In this case, I'm going to try to create the movement sort of like raindrops in that pattern or repetition.

I can then go over my lines with my brush pen to give it.

An interesting line quality varying the width of my marks.

If I'd like to create a dynamic use of line, okay, or I could go back with a fine point pen.

If I wanted to create a little more focus and maybe a slightly cleaner edge.

I can do that as well until I kind of ink my lines.

But I have a lot of different kinds of lines here and they're all in a pattern that shows repetition and movement.

Okay, for the second one I'm going to be drawing shape and I'm going to be creating a repetition and pattern movement with shapes that means I'm going to repeat the same shape or a variety of shapes, but they're going to be lines that are closed.

So a line is a moving point in space.

A shape is a closed line that can be a geometric shape like a triangle, or it can be an organic shape like a cloud so I'm going to create a flowing moving pattern that has both organic and geometric shapes.

So I like, uh, let's see let's do triangles.

I like triangles, a lot I'm going to have some flying triangles of different sizes, they're going to repeat themselves I'm going to let a couple go off the edge of the page here, my little tiny box page, okay.

And then maybe I have some organic floating shapes, too maybe do one behind.

Because remember I want to create repetitions I'm going to repeat the motifs of my shapes here.

The motifs being the shapes, the rectangular triangles, and then these organic sort of cloud, floaty shapes.

And again, I can go back with my pen going over my edges.

And then when I'm done I'm going to let the pen dry.

And I can erase my pencil lines to kind of make my product look better.

Okay, that's.

My sketch, that's going to be using shape, which is flat shapes and then using repetition and movement for the next line.

This one is the only one you're going to add color to.

And you can just use your colored pencils that's, fine just use your best craft.

And so you really you can make any kind of drawing here that you want.

It doesn't matter as long as you're showing me that you understand the concept of color.

So in this case, maybe all, um, I don't know, I'll draw a flower, or even just a four leaf clover, or some kind of abstract flower form, that's fine.

And then I can take the petals and make them different colors using my best technique and I'm going to fill in the whole box using my best technique and graft I'm, not going to spend so much time on this for the example, the sake of example, but I just want you to get the idea.

This is what I would do for color, something like this, where I have a variety of colors and trying to pick out different colors that makes my that make my sketch, pop.

Okay and I'm just going quickly for the sake of the video here.

I don't want to spend too much time on this I'm, not doing my best work, but I'm sure yours will look much more interesting and creative than mine.

I do want you to focus on going slow and doing your best work for this one, especially even if you just do, maybe a couple rows a day, you have plenty of time to work on this there's more than enough time to do it.

And it won't, take you that long, you can probably get a row done in 10 minutes if that okay for texture after we're done with color.

Here, the element of texture is that feeling of looking or touching something that has a surface.

So drawing textual hair, like curly hair or spiky hair, or imagining you're running your surface over the textural sort of wet surface of the ocean.

Anything that has if I could imagine touching it it, you know, uh, and this way that it feels in the drawing that would be can come a textural line.

So for example, if I had a spiky hair texture, it might be rows and rows of spiky hair I'm getting using a little bit of a finer brush pen here.

Okay.

And then for value.

This one I'm going to need to use my pencils to shade.

So for value again, repetition and movement.

I can do a shape that's repeated.

Okay.

And then have shade in a value scale here from light to dark using my technique I've developed.

So here I've got my darkest dark in the corner.

And then this line this section of the value scale is going to shift and get lighter remember, we're using repetition and movement here and lighter still lighter still.

So I can see those values shifting from light to dark.

When I take a look at the sketch inside this box, because this one is the combination of value, plus repetition and movement.

So I have a repetition of the lines.

And I also have the value that's running through it.

So that both ideas are exemplified, both the element of art and the principle of design or excuse me element of our principle of design.

So these are the principles of design at the top.

And then the elements of art here on this side, okay.

So we're going to do that for each one of these principles of design, just do one row at a time doing the best that you can okay.

So for things like a symmetrical balance, we know you want to maybe diagram the boxes so that you draw one side, whatever you draw on those one side with lines you're going to repeat the same thing on the other side.

You know, for example, in the element of shape if I have, um, you know, a big, again, we'll do a triangle here then I'm going to have the same triangle on the other side.

Whatever I do on one side of this central line is going to be repeated on the other side.

Okay.

Same thing with a color.

You know, maybe I have, you know a profile here and a profile here, whatever the shapes are I'm going to color them, but I'm going to make sure that they're opposite and that they are.

You know, reflecting each other that it's the same on both sides for some texture.

You know, if you want to think about drawing, something that has texture, that's.

Symmetrical that's, fine, that's, one way, good way to think about it.

You could even make hairdo, um, if you're doing, you know, the face because the face is symmetrical and has balance.

You could do a symmetrically balanced face and then do your hair, texture.

I'm.

Sure your drawings will be much better than mine here.

Okay.

And then for value, you would again, symmetrically balance.

But you'd be thinking about how to shade each one of the shapes that you're putting in here to create a light medium and dark shifting in value.

So I'm going to go ahead and make these into spheres.

Because I know that I need a value scale to shade a sphere, because I practice that before, I know how to do that? Okay, one row at a time thinking about how the element of art is applied to the principle of design.

Okay? Happy, drawing.

You.

## FAQs

### Principles of Design Matrix explained? ›

**When artists work with the Elements of Art (line, shape, form, value, texture, space, and color) decisions must be made HOW these elements should be arranged**. An effective work of art will have a thoughtful arrangement of these elements to create harmony and unity in a piece.

**What is a design matrix in design? ›**

A design matrix is **a matrix containing data about multiple characteristics of several individuals or objects**. Each row corresponds to an individual and each column to a characteristic.

**How does a design matrix work? ›**

The design matrix contains data on the independent variables (also called explanatory variables) in statistical models which attempt to explain observed data on a response variable (often called a dependent variable) in terms of the explanatory variables.

**What is matrix in painting? ›**

A matrix is essentially **a template, and can be made of wood, metal, or glass**. The design is created on the matrix by working its flat surface with either tools or chemicals. The matrix is then inked in order to transfer it onto the desired surface.

**What is the rank of a matrix in design? ›**

The rank of a matrix is **the number of independent rows and / or columns of a matrix**. We will soon define what we mean by the word independent. For a matrix with more columns than rows, it is the number of independent rows.

**What are the elements of the design matrix? ›**

When artists work with the Elements of Art (**line, shape, form, value, texture, space, and color**) decisions must be made HOW these elements should be arranged. An effective work of art will have a thoughtful arrangement of these elements to create harmony and unity in a piece.

**Why is it called a design matrix? ›**

(The first column represents the level of factor A, the second column B, and the third column C). This is referred to as the Design Matrix **because it describes the design of the experiment**.

**How do you create a design structure matrix? ›**

**Basic Steps**

- Interview engineers and managers.
- Check for possible sources of data that can be parsed or exported into a DSM.
- Determine list of system elements.
- Ask about inputs, outputs, strengths of interaction, etc between elements.
- Enter marks in matrix.

**Why is a design matrix an important tool to use in the design process? ›**

Design matrices are powerful tools for determining the path of the website design process, because: they force you to determine two design attributes to focus on; they build consensus within a team; they guide the clients' perception of competitors; and, most importantly, they lead to differentiated website designs.

**What the matrix is used for in art? ›**

Matrix: **A physical surface that can be manipulated to hold ink, which is then transferred to paper**. Most, though not all, matrices are able to print the same image many times. Matrices used in printmaking include blocks of wood, sheets of linoleum, metal plates, sheets of Plexiglass, and slabs of limestone.

### How do you represent an image using matrix? ›

A digital grayscale image is presented in the computer by pixels matrix. **Each pixel of such image is presented by one matrix element – integer from the set** . The numeric values in pixel presentation are uniformly changed from zero (black pixels) to 255 (white pixels).

**What is matrix used for? ›**

The matrices are a two-dimensional set of numbers or symbols distributed in a rectangular shape in vertical and horizontal lines so that their elements are arranged in rows and columns. They are useful for **describing systems of linear or differential equations, as well as representing a linear application**.

**What are the different types of design structure matrix? ›**

There are two types of DSMs, **static and time-based**. Elements like components of product architecture and groups in an organization are examples of static DSM while time-based activities with precedence conditions constitute time-based DSMs.

**What is dimension in matrix? ›**

The dimensions of a matrix **give the number of rows and columns of the matrix in that order**. Since matrix A has 2 rows and 3 columns, it is called a 2 × 3 2\times 3 2×3 matrix.

**What is a matrix in interior design? ›**

An adjacency matrix is **a diagram or table that lists each room or space**. They help interior designers see the connection between the spaces to develop the needs of the clients.

**What is the 7 elements of design? ›**

The elements of design are the fundamental aspects of any visual design which include **shape, color, space, form, line, value, and texture**.

**What is the intercept of the design matrix? ›**

The design matrix that is used includes an intercept term which **represents the mean gene expression of the control group, or the reference level in the treatment factor**. Other levels in the factor have mean gene expression represented relative to the control group.

**What does each element of matrix represent? ›**

Every element of a matrix is usually represented by a variable with two subscripts in which **first subscript denotes the row of element and the second subscript denotes the column of the same element**.

**What is the difference between model matrix and design matrix? ›**

**design matrix refers to the same concept in the context of a designed experiment.** **model matrix is the result of applying some basis expansion ^{*} to the predictor matrix**.

**What does the design structure matrix focus on _____________________? ›**

Design Structure Matrix (DSM, also known as Dependency and Structure Modelling ) techniques support the management of complexity by focusing attention on **the elements of a complex system and how they relate to each other**.

### What is a design matrix in engineering? ›

Decision matrix based method is the most popular concept selection approach used in engineering design. A matrix is **an array that presents an axis of the alternate list being evaluated**. The list of weighted criteria depends upon the importance of each of the final decisions to be taken.

**What does a matrix look like? ›**

A matrix is **a square or rectangular grid of values, surrounded by square brackets**. The lines of numbers going from left to right are the matrix's rows; the lines of numbers going from top to bottom are the matrix's columns.

**What is a matrix template? ›**

A matrix diagram is **a popular lean sigma tool to visually depict relationships between 2, 3, or 4 groups of information**. The matrix template and the checklist template are the most popular types of template to use a starting point to create your own tools from scratch — for a wide variety of creative purposes.

**What is a matrix in architecture? ›**

As we see from the architecture matrix diagram, a matrix is **a grid used to store or display data in a structured format**. It is often used synonymously with a table containing horizontal rows and vertical columns.

**What are the advantages of design structure matrix? ›**

Relative to other system modeling methods, a DSM has two main advantages: **It provides a simple and concise way to represent a complex system**. It is amenable to powerful analyses, such as clustering (to facilitate modularity) and sequencing (to minimize cost and schedule risk in processes).

**Why do you need decision matrix in evaluating your design concepts? ›**

Decision matrix techniques are used **to define attributes, weigh them, and appropriately sum the weighted attributes to give a relative ranking among design alternatives**. Note that, in practice, attributes are weighted as numeric figure based on a prescribed ranking system for individual design alternatives.

**How do you write a design criteria? ›**

**Creating Design Criteria**

- Define the purpose of the project.
- Identify the design requirements.
- Identify the project's special needs.
- Outline the specific requirements that the project must meet.
- Create a timeline for the project.
- Identify any special area that may be associated with the project.

**What is the main reason to use a design system? ›**

Why is having a design system important? Design systems **save organizations time and money by codifying design decisions that can be replicated at scale**. They also improve the customer experience by ensuring consistency, familiarity, and accessibility at every touchpoint.

**What can be represented by a matrix? ›**

The numbers in a matrix can represent **data, and they can also represent mathematical equations**. In many time-sensitive engineering applications, multiplying matrices can give quick but good approximations of much more complicated calculations.

**How do you explain an identity matrix? ›**

What do you mean by an identity matrix? In linear algebra, an identity matrix is **a matrix of order nxn such that each main diagonal element is equal to 1, and the remaining elements of the matrix are equal to 0**.

### What are the basics of matrices? ›

It is **a rectangular array of numbers, figures, or expressions, organized in rows and columns**. Matrices are usually written in box brackets. In matrices, the horizontal and vertical lines of entries are rows and columns. The size of a matrix is determined by the number of rows and columns that it holds.

**What are three characteristics of matrices? ›**

The **additive, multiplicative identity, and inverse** of matrices are also included in this study of properties of matrices.

**Why do we use matrix in daily life? ›**

It **helps in solving linear equations**. Matrices are extremely valuable objects that can be found in a wide range of applications. The application of matrices in mathematics is used in a wide range of scientific fields as well as mathematical areas. Engineering mathematics is used in almost every aspect of our lives.

**What are the 3 types of matrix structures? ›**

**There are three types of matrix organizational structures:**

- Weak matrix structure. A weak matrix structure is most similar to a traditional hierarchical structured workplace. ...
- Balanced matrix structure. ...
- Strong matrix structure.

**What are matrix structures examples? ›**

In a matrix structure, individuals work across teams and projects as well as within their own department or function. For example, **a project or task team established to develop a new product might include engineers and design specialists as well as those with marketing, financial, personnel and production skills**.

**How many dimensions can a matrix have? ›**

2.1.

The matrices that have been shown so far have been **two-dimensional**; these matrices have rows and columns. Matrices in MATLAB are not limited to two dimensions, however. In fact, in Chapter 13, we will see image applications in which three-dimensional matrices are used.

**What is the difference between a matrix and a determinant? ›**

**A matrix is a group of numbers but a determinant is a unique number related to that matrix**. In a matrix the number of rows need not be equal to the number of columns whereas, in a determinant, the number of rows should be equal to the number of columns.

**What is the null of a matrix? ›**

The null space of a matrix , is **the set of all solutions to the homogeneous equation A x → = 0 →** . It is denoted by N u l A . The zero vector is always in the null space of a matrix.

**What is a house matrix? ›**

Matrix is understood to be "**the identity card" of the houses and land identified as buildings, to which its registration is in the Finance Department**. This record must contain the characterization of the building, area, value and reference to the owners or those who use the property.

**What does matrix mean in interior design? ›**

An adjacency matrix is **a diagram or table that lists each room or space**. They help interior designers see the connection between the spaces to develop the needs of the clients.

### What is a matrix style structure? ›

A matrix structure is **a combination of two or more types of organisational structures**. It is a way of arranging your business so that you set up reporting relationships as a grid, or a matrix, rather than in the traditional hierarchy.

**What is the purpose of a matrix diagram? ›**

A matrix diagram is defined as a new management planning tool used for **analyzing and displaying the relationship between data sets**. The matrix diagram shows the relationship between two, three, or four groups of information.

**Why is matrix important in design specification? ›**

**The matrix can represent a large number of system elements and their relationships in a compact way that highlights important patterns in the data** (such as feedback loops and modules). The presentation is amenable to matrix-based analysis techniques, which can be used to improve the structure of the system.

**What are the four categories of the matrix? ›**

**Square, symmetric, triangular, and diagonal matrices** that are much as their name suggests. Identity matrices that are all zero values except along the main diagonal where the values are 1.

**What is an evaluation design matrix? ›**

The Evaluation Matrix serves as **an organizing tool to help plan the conduct of the evaluation, indicating where secondary data will be used and where primary data will need to be collected**. It guides analysis, ensures that all data collected is analysed and triangulated and supports the identification of evidence gaps.